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TK 210 (Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1)) ELISA Assay Kit

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 Product Description


TK 210 (Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1)) ELISA Assay Kit: 
For Investigational Use Only

Size:  1x96 wells
Dynamic Range:  0 - 17 µg/L
Incubation Time:  4.75 hours
Sample Type:  Serum
Sample Size: 80 µL
Species:  Human
Controls Included

Product Developed and Manufactured in Sweden by  AroCell

Intended Use

The AroCell TK 210 ELISA Assay kit is a quantitative immunoassay for the determination of Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) in human serum.  The TK 210 ELISA Assay kit is For Investigational Use Only. The performance characteristics of this product have not been established. 


Thymidine Kinase 1

Thymidine kinase is a protein that phosphorylates thymidine to thymidine-monophosphate,  a component required for DNA replication. Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) concentrations in the cell are low in the G0/G1 phase (resting phase) of the cell cycle but increase during the S/G2 phases, when DNA replication occurs, and then decrease during mitosis (1).  The presence of TK1 in cells is thus an indicator of active cellular proliferation.

Sustained cell proliferation is a hallmark of cancer. Up-regulation of TK1 occurs during cancer development and elevated TK1 levels have been reported also in pre-cancerous conditions (2).TK 1 enters the blood stream through the death and disintegration of tumor cells, and TK 1 enzyme activity can be measured by analyzing serum samples from patients. 

TK1 in Serum

95% of serum TK1 activity in cancer positive samples is apparently tumor derived, making the measurement of TK1 an excellent indicator of proliferation and cell turnover, and tumor growth (4).  Recent research has shown that serum TK1 enzyme activity is elevated in subjects with many forms of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, prostate, breast, lung, sarcoma and colon cancer patients (5). However, methods based on the measurement of the activity of TK1 in serum may underestimate the quantity of serum TK1, due to the fact that TK1 may remain inactive in serum, especially in serum from subjects with solid tumors.  Furthermore, serum TK1 occurs as aggregates with a range of molecular weights and specific activities and this distribution differs between serum from healthy subjects and those with tumors (9).

The AroCell TK 210 ELISA brings the specificity and sensitivity of immunoassay to the assay of TK1 and offers improved accuracy, especially when studying serum TK1 derived from patients with solid tumors (10). The AroCell TK 210 ELISA measures the concentration of TK 1 in the entire body, including both active and inactive forms of the TK 1 enzyme. This is possible by binding to the TK 210 antigen site, an antigen expressed in both active and inactive forms of the enzyme present, resulting in a more accurate representation of TK 1 present.  

The AroCell TK 210 ELISA Assay kit procedure includes pre-treatment of the samples with a sample dilution buffer that makes TK1 aggregates more readily accessible for immunoassay. A study comparing TK1 levels in healthy and breast cancer subjects showed the AroCell TK 210 ELISA to better distinguish between these groups than an enzyme activity assay (10).  The AroCell TK 210 ELISA will provide new opportunities for studying cellular proliferation, tumor cell turnover and therapy response in subjects with solid tumors.

Using the AroCell TK 210 ELISA Assay kit in conjunction with other cancer biomarkers (e.g. CA 15-3, PSA, etc.), improves the detection of cancers, the different biomarkers monitor different aspects of tumor growth and therefore increase the detection of tumor growth.  Some studies found that, together with that of traditional tumor biomarkers (e.g. CA 15-3), TK1 activity provided an indication of the rate of cell proliferation and cell turnover, while other markers were related to tumor mass (6).

Assay Principle:

The AroCell TK 210 ELISA Assay kit is a quantitative enzyme immunoassay. The test procedure is based on the sequential addition of sample, a biotin labeled anti-TK1 monoclonal antibody, streptavidin labeled enzyme-conjugate and substrate to Microtiter wells coated with another monoclonal anti-TK1 IgG. The resultant color intensity is proportional to the amount of TK1 present in the sample. The assay range is approximately 0 - 17 μg/L and the total assay incubation time is 4 hours and 45 minutes.

Sample Collection and Handling:

The AroCell TK 210 ELISA is designed for the use with serum samples. For the assay of TK1 in other types of sample, contact AroCell / Eagle Biosciences for advice. Blood should be collected by venipuncture and allowed to clot (e.g. leave to stand at 25C for 30 minutes and then separate the serum by centrifugation). Lipemic or hemolyzed samples should not be tested. If not assayed immediately, samples can be stored at 4C for up to 5 days or at –20C for up to 2 months. For longer-term storage, -80C is recommended. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Mix samples well before testing. All samples should be assayed in duplicate.  Samples found or expected to contain more than 17 μg/L should be diluted 1+4 with serum dilution buffer prior to the pre-incubation step.

Typical Standard Curve:


  1. Zhou, J. et al. (2013). The Proliferation Marker Thymidine Kinase 1 in Clinical Use. Review. Molecular and Clinical Oncology 1:18-28.
  2. Alegre, M.M. et al. (2012). Thymidine Kinase 1 Upregulation is an Early Event in Breast Tumor Formation. Journal of Oncology. Volume 2012, Article ID 575647, 5 pages .
  3. Guan, H. et al. (2009). Thymidine Kinase 1 Expression in Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Significantly Differs from Usual Ductal Hyperplasia and Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ: A Useful Tool in Tumor Therapy Management. Mol Med Rep. 2(6): 923-9.
  4. Alegre, M.M. et al. (2013). Thymidine Kinase 1: A Universal Marker for Cancer. Cancer and Clinical Oncology. 2(1): 2013.
  5. Wu, C. et al. (2003). Production and Characterization of a Novel Chicken IgY Antibody Raised Against C-Terminal Peptide from Human Thymidine Kinase 1. J. Immunol Methods 277: 157-169.
  6. Bjöhle, J. et al. (2013). Serum Thymidine Kinase Activity Compared With Ca 15-3 in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer Within a Randomized Trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 139(3): 751-8.
  7. Chen, F. et al. (2013). Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 Levels Predict Cancer-Free Survival Following Neoadjuvant, Surgical and Adjuvant Treatment of Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer. Molecular and Clinical Oncology. 1: 894-902.
  8. He, Q. et al. (2006). Thymidine Kinase 1 in Serum Predicts Increased Risk of Distant or Loco-regional Recurrence Following Surgery in Patients with Early Breast Cancer. Anticancer Research 26: 4753-4760.
  9. Jagarlamudi, K.K. et al. (2015). Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients Differ Significantly in Their Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) Specific Activities Compared with Those Found in Hematological Malignancies and Blood Donors: Implications of Using Serum TK1 as a Biomarker. BMC Cancer 15:66.
  10. Kumar, J.K. et al. (2016). A Clinical Evaluation of the TK 210 ELISA in Sera from Breast Cancer Patients Demonstrates High Sensitivity and Specificity at All Stages of the Disease. Tumor Biology. DOI 10.1007/s13277-016-5024-z (E pub a head of print).



 Product Videos

Arocell TK 210 ELISA Webinar Hematological Malignancies
  • Arocell TK 210 ELISA Webinar Hematological Malignancies
    AroCell TK 210 ELISA : A novel proliferation biomarker to stud...

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